Famous Souvenirs of Iran

Saffron

Saffron

Red flag of saffron is the most expensive spice in the world. Saffron is currently produced and packaged by hand, and this may be one of the reasons why the saffron is expensive. Saffron is a native Asian plant and it has been exported from Asia to other parts of the world and now the best saffron can be found in Iran. It is principally cultivated and produced in places like Spain, France, Turkey, and the US. The word saffron is known an Arabic word origins, but in the western context the word is called Sumerian, and the idea is contemplated before the Sumerian origin of the saffron-rich regions of Iran. Some believe the word is less common in Arabic than in Persian. The word has its roots in ancient Persian and Sanskrit, and it is also pronounced saffron in Shahnameh Poetry. At present it can be said that Iran is absolutely the largest producer of saffron in the world with a share of product 90% to 93%. The city of Torbat Heydariyeh is known as the capital of the world’s saffron with the annual production of 50 tons of saffron. Saffron Brewing is essentially antidepressant and exhilarating and helps improve digestive function; it is also diuretic and beneficial for kidney and bladder washing. It is also facilitation of digestion, gastric bloating elimination, facilitation of blood circulation and hematopoiesis are other benefits. It also has antioxidant and consequently anticancer properties.

Persian Rug

Persian Rug

Carpet or rug is a type of woven cotton, wool, and in some cases silk, commonly used to cover the ground. It is called woven and knotted carpet. The Persian carpet or Persian rug is an essential part of Persian art and culture. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia. The exquisitely intricate patterns and natural dyes have rendered it the most sought after hand-mad weave in the world with acknowledgement of superiority in every aspect. Persian carpets can be divided into three groups: Farsh/Qali 9sized anything greater than 6 at 4 feet) Qalicheh (meaning “small rug”, sized 6at 4 feed and smaller), and nomadic carpets known as Gilim (including Zilu, meaning “rough carpet Zilus are flat weaves but carpets or rugs are pile weaves. The oldest known surviving carpet in the world is the Pazyryk carpet discovered in an archaeological excavation in 1949 in the Pazyryk Valley, in the Altai Mountains in Siberia. The Pazyryk carpet was thought, by its discoverer Sergei Rudenko, to be a product of the Achaemenids. Rug is also considered today’s decorative aspect, since carpets and rugs have always been beautiful. The city of Kashan has been recognized as the capital of the world carpet since the 2014 year onwards, and this lasting work has been registered in UNESCO’s Tangible Heritage No. 00383. Currently, there are more than 1200 machine-made carpets and 700 handmade carpets in Kashan and Aron and Bidgol. Carpet export in Iran is one of the most profitable economic activities. Famous Persian carpets Tabriz rug, Turkmen rug, Khorasan Mood Rug, Mashhad carpet, Zanjan Carpet, Basri rug, Shiraz and Niriz rugs, Birjand rugs, Baluchi rug.

Pistachio

Pistachio

Pistachio is a small tree with originating in the Middle East and Central Asia and grows in countries such as Iran, Syria, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. Its fruit is edible and very delicate. Pistachio is Persian word that has been introduced into European languages through Latin. Pistachio production in the Islamic Republic of Iran was equal to 574,987 tons in the 2017 year, making Iran the first in the world. After Iran, respectively the US and China are the second and third with production 272,291 and 95,294 tons. The most important type of pistachio is the “Akbari” pistachio, which is known for its “super long pistachio” in the world market for its long, elongated and coarse core. It is one of the most important pistachio varieties in the trade and Iran is the only major producer. This type of pistachio is mainly harvested in Rafsanjanand Anar cities. The founder of the type of pistachio was Haj Akbar, who is known Akbar Taj Abadi. Pistachios are rich in copper, magnesium and a variety of B vitamins that strengthen the immune system and prevent many diseases. Vitamin B6 is essential for maintaining immune function. Vitamin B6 deficiency results in the immune system failing to fight infection. Pistachio also helps to make red blood cells properly. Pistachio is one of the best sources of potassium with the content of small amount. Iran and America are the two leading countries in the field of pistachio production and export in the world. This two countries have about 70 to 80 percent of the annual production of pistachio. Pistachio production in Iran is about 200 tons annually and only 10% of the product is domestic consumed and the other 90% is exported. The annual consumption of pistachios for each Iranian family is about 2 kg. Production and export of Iranian pistachios annually generates about $ 1.4 billion to $ 1.7 billion for Iran. Kerman province, Rafsanjan, Zarand, Kashkouieh, Sirjan, Pomegranate and Iran are the main centers of pistachio production in Iran. The city of Boin Zahra in Qazvin province also has a significant share of Iranian pistachio production. Although Iranian and American pistachios are of the same race, Iranian pistachios taste better. Many major European distributors also approve of (the seeds and seedlings of the first pistachios planted were varieties of Iranian pistachios that in the US have changed at taste due to soil and climate change.

Minakari

Minakari

Enamel is a heat-fused glass paste colored by metal oxides and used to decorate metal surfaces. The art of “Mina Kari” or Enameling is the decoration of metal and tile with mina glaze. The closest literal meaning for enamel is blue sky. Enameling or Enameled is an art that has a history of about 5,000 years and is considered the handicraft. According to some experts, this art originated in Iran and then moved to other countries and after matching Byzantine glazes with Iranian works. In Europe, of course, archaeological finds have a very long history. Nowadays, the art is mostly done on copper, but it can also be done on gold and silver. Gold is the only metal that does not oxidize when the enamel melts, so it allows for the more detailed and similar design to be done on the enamel, while silver and silver enamels do not have this quality. Enamel on gold is the art of Saebin living in Ahwaz and is known as Seabee Gold. Enamel formation is also a combination of metal oxides and some salts at high temperatures (750° C to 850 ° C) where colors are formed over time and based on temperature. Nowadays in Iran, the center of production is Isfahan’s enamel pots and enamel jewelry in Ahvaz, and distinguished masters are active in the production of enamel works. In terms of production method, enamel is divided into two categories: Enamel Champlevé Enamel Painted A number of delicate, small cups with floral, bird, and arabesque designs illustrate the continued excellence of Persian enameling in the later 18th century.

Khatamkari

Khatamkari

Marquetry is an ancient Iranian technique of inlaying. This is a version of decorative ornamentation, in which art forms are made by decorating the surface of wooden, bone and metal precisely-cut intricate geometric patterns. Khatam-Kari or khatam-bandy refers to the art of crafting a khatam. Khatam Kari (also Known as Persian inlaid work) as a Persian version of marquetry means incrustation (incrustation work). The art came to Iran following the emergence of a direct relationship between Iran and China in the modern way before the Safavid dynasty, during the Mongol invasion of IL khan. Other scholars also believe the inauguration of the Dilaman dynasty in Iran and in the city of Shiraz peaked in the Safavid era, on the other word because of the government’s support for artists and on the other, for establishing commercial relations with countries far and near. It was built more than a thousand years an inlay made of this method in the Shiraz Atigh Jami Mosque in Shiraz. This art has been mass-produced in Isfahan as a craftsman, but Khatam Shiraz still speaks first in terms of elegance and visual art. Ivory, gold or silver are also used for high quality luxurious object. Many objects can be decorated in this fashion, such as jewelry/decorative boxes, chessboards, pipes, desks, frames or some musical instrument.

Persian Miniature

Persian Miniature

The word miniature is derived from the Latin Minimum, meaning “red lead” which was used for pigments in the production of artistic works of ancient Romans and Middle Ages’ artists who illustrated religious manuscripts. Most scholars believed the miniature painting to have been born in Iran and later moved to China and it almost complete way has returned in Iran from the Mongol era. Iranian artists have made an endless effort to complete and develop it. As far as the document show, the first miniature painting in Iran belong to the beginning of the Islamic period. Miniature painting is one of the arts that can depict all nature in small format. The subject of miniature paintings are usually hunters and hunters, various animals, birds, dragons, cormorants and dragons, angels, demons, dervishes, shepherds with their own sheep, master and apprentice, youth sitting and standing, rural and agricultural life and events. It is sometimes important historical events and miniature paintings have been used to decorate the margins of poems and scriptures. The miniature paintings and ornamentation are decorated on boxes of bones to give them a certain beauty. Production stages: Bone boxes are made of camel’s bone, which are then cut into fat and shaped into different boxes and shapes. These bones have the same hardness as the stone, and for millions of years, they remain stiff and healthy, and are of particular importance. After the painting process, to keep the painting stable and prevent them from being wiped, they use a material called polyester that is used in the final step to create a special, glossy effect on the surface of the boxes. Such handicrafts are often culturally or religiously wonderful. Painting is one of the major disciplines of the visual arts, dating back six times to the written language.

Termeh

Termeh

Termeh is a hand- woven cloth of Iran, primarily produced in the Yazd province. Weaving termeh needed a good wool with long fibers. The Termeh is woven by an expert with the help of a worker called Gooshvare-kesh. Termeh has flourished in Iran since the early Safavid era, but is now becoming obsolete and only termeh workshops exist in Yazd , Kashan, Kerman, and Tehran. Silk and high-fiber wool are used for Termeh. The yarns are dyed with natural plant colors and synthetic materials, and mostly in jujube, red, green, orange and black. At present fabrics are the machine in market, handmade production are very low and not very economical and the traditional fabric will be custom-made only. Termeh is a silk thread and wool yarn, wool, Cork Alvan and silk, and the Termeh texture was formerly fingerprinted and hence also known as fingerprinting, but was later partially done for tissue. They used special machines. Common designs used in Termeh including Boteh and Jegheh, Shah Abbasi and Deer horn designs shawl, with various types that are shawl, charghadi shawl, striped shawl, Atabaki shawl, Mohramat shawl, Reza shawl, Kashmiri shawl and Yazdi shawl. Termeh has been admired throughout history: Greek historians commented on the beauty of Persian textures in the Achaemenian period (532 BC), Ashcani (222 BC) and Sassanid (226-641 AD) periods and the famous Chinese tourist Hoang Tesang admired Termeh. Termeh after Islam’s entered in Iran. Because of difficulty of producing Termeh and the advent of mechanized weaving, few factories remain in Iran that produce traditionally woven Termeh. Rezaei Termeh is the most famous of the remaining factories.

Qalamkari

Qalamkari

Kalamkari( Qalamkari ) is a type of colored or printed block cotton fabric produced in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. Only natural dyes are used in Kalamkari and contain twenty-three stages. There are two distinct arts of Kalamkari art in India – Srikalahasti style and Machilipatnam style. “Etched” or Kalamkari is a word that speaks for itself. At the beginning of the art, the paint industry would use brushes on cotton and silk fabrics and then dye them; these beautiful and vibrant fabrics were widely used in aristocratic clothing. But as the demand for such fabrics increased and the pace of production of these fabrics had to be accelerated, the industry turned to print. Of course, precisely the printing on the fabric is referred to as chit-making, which is nowadays called Kalamkari fabric as puzzle. If we say precisely when Kalamkari or in other words the painting began on the fabric, we can refer to the fabric that belongs to the fourth century BC. It was discovered in the tombs of the Haft Bradar (Seven Brothers) of the Scythians. Another example is from a cemetery in Egypt. But its use became in the Mongol era, and Iranians began to design and paint fabrics for use by regard of the Mongol khans. When the Safadi seized power, artists came from around the country to the center of their rule in Isfahan, in order to support of the Safadi monarchs, especially Shah Abbas. Meanwhile, masters of fabric painting came to Isfahan to be the main center of Isfahan’s art production today. Apart from Isfahan fabric embroidery is also common in the following cities: Tabriz, Rasht, Kashan, Mashhad.

Metalworking

Metalworking

The term tore tics, relatively rare in English, refers to artistic metalworking – hammering on gold or silver, engraving, or using repoussé and chase to create fine minute prints or small engraving patterns. Tore tics can include metal engraving – removing linear metal by pushing forward with a burin. The vast land of Iran has always been a demand for the creation of pure, original and spiritual arts, at the same time commensurate with the lives of the people and the customs of their communities. Metallurgy and the use of metals, according to historical documents, date back to more than a thousand years BC. The artifacts of each era represent a continuous and unmistakable movement that, in addition to the objective and material symbols in the form of containers, cups. And… the created heart represents a spiritual space that has its roots in the beliefs that have dominated its period, and ultimately has led to the emergence of sacred phenomena or spiritual and artistic phenomena. Iranian metalwork is therefore an important resource for understanding the art of Iran in the Islamic period in particular and the history of Islamic art in general. The history of the art in Iran has no clear history and comes from a documentary work that indicates the first place of object and metal application, especially copper in Iran and the Near East some thousands of years BC. During the late second millennium and early millennium BC metalwork’s flourished in various parts of Iran, especially in the north and northwest and on the southern margin of the Caspian Sea. One of the most important works of this period is the Hassanloo Gold Cup, which was discovered in 1335 and has prominent motifs, such as the gods riding a chariot. In the first millennium BC metallurgy and engraving in Iran had a special prosperity and valuable artifacts from that era, including the Marlice Gold Cups. This art, with its thousands of years of history, flourished in the Achaemenids era and reached its peak in the Sassanid era Nowadays many artists employ many metals, such as gold, silver, bronze, brass, copper, Warsaw and steel, to draw upon the experience of thousands of years and integrate it with modern technology to create and decorate highly decorated containers and artifacts. There are three main styles in the heart of Iran: Shiraz, Tabriz and Isfahan.